The god designated as Rohini’s Bull in Rigved (2.12.12) is carved in a translucent agate piece of 3cm x2.5cm and dates back to Neolithic times (5500 to 3500 years ago). The Bull (Sanskrit: Vrish) marked the beginning of rain or varsha and rain-based year (Varsh) in Western India by the new moon day close to summer solstice in the constellation of Orion. Figure to the left, in anti-light view, shows three no-moon nights, n1, n2, n3, between the last crescent of waning moon in the morning sky (dc) and the first crescent of the waxing moon in the evening sky (ac). The former lay above the tip of the right horn of the bull coinciding with star Rohini (Aldeberan) and the latter was above the bull’s left-horn-tip marked by star Alhena (in the right figure in normal or reflected light). The other five ray-points (stars) of the so designated ‘Seven-Rayed Bull of Rohini’** in the constellation of Orion are Bellatrix (c), Betelgueuse (d), Mintaka (e), Alnilam (f) and Alnitak (g).

Astrological symbol of sign Taurus, current globally, is a replica of the bull-head carved by the Neolithic Astrologer-artist of India (inset in rt. fig.).

Date of sculpture: Fixed approximately by the method of precession of equinoxes taking the new moon coincident with the summer-solstice-date within the Rohini’s Bull during the Neolithic period.

Collection spot: Roadside, 8 Kilometres south of Bhuj, Kachhchh, Western India. Repository: Attadhisthanam, Dehradun. Illustration: Vikas Pandey. [The artefact is mounted in silver at present.]

Asterisks: *: Word used in Atharv-Ved (1.21.1). **Translation of the Rigved verse 2.12.12 (by J.): He is mighty god Indra, all pervasive, who moves the Seven-Rayed-Bull of Rohini in the sky with his powerful arms, (and ) has made Saptsindhu (Indus) River to flow vigorously (when rain begins with the moon’s crescent over the Bull’s horn in western sky).

Note: Indus was flowing those days between Punjab and Gulf of Cambay, Gujarat (ONGC Bull., 40, 1, fig. 16)

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